Development of Intellectual Awareness

Development of Intellectual Awareness:

The stability of life brought about an intellectual awareness in the American colonies. Education, journalism, and thinkers contributed greatly to the development of intellectual awareness. Pennsylvania was the foremost colony in the field of education where the educational institutions for children were established by the Quakers under the aegis of the Church. In 1636 Harvard College was established in Cambridge City, Massachusetts. William and Mary College in Virginia became a famous centre of Education in 1693. These colleges and other private educational institutions imparted education in mathematics, languages, and science subjects, and night classes were also held for workers. A special arrangement was made to teach fine arts to women. Individual efforts of some people also contributed to the promotion of education. For example, Benjamin Franklin established a philosophical centre that later on became famous by the name of the American Philosophical Society. Although at that time majority of books were imported from London and Europe, the first printing press was set up in the American city of Cambridge towards the close of the 17th century. The first newspaper “Boston News Letter” was published in 1704, from Boston. That newspaper was very candid and continued to be published till the beginning of independence. In 1719, “American Mercury” was published, and “New York Gazette” appeared in 1725. About 25 different newspapers were in circulation by the end of 1765 AD. Education and journalism cultivated a new outlook towards life and produced the spirit of nationality among people within a century after the formation of colonies in America.

Through his book “Commonsense” Thomas Penn ignited people’s love for their country. That book asserted that the Americans should sever their relations with England in order to safeguard their rights. He has stated in the book. “It is not rational to believe that this continent will remain under the subjugation of any foreign power for a long time. Further, it is utterly illogical to think, that one continent will rule over the other forever.” Through his articles contributed to a magazine “The American Crisis” between 1755 and 1783, he fostered patriotism and rational soldiers. James Otis, Patric Henry, and Samuel Adams contributed immensely to the development of intellectual awareness among the people. James Otis opposed the Search Warrant Act and Patric Henry, the Stamp Regulation. Patric Henry was an energetic young man who ignited the national spirit in the youth. He used to say “Give me either freedom or consign me to death.” Samuel Adams was determined to teach a lesson to the British government against its excessive cruelties. He strengthened the spirit of revolution and stirred his fellow citizens for the war of independence.

Important Links:

Ideas and Principles
Negligible Interference by British Government
No Affection for England in the American Colonies
The Colonists Love for Freedom
Impact of Seven Years War
Economic Exploitation of the Colonies
Greenville Policy
Rockingham Declaratory Act
Townshend Tax Project
Lord North Tea Policy
Intercontinental Conference of the Congress
Declaration of Independence
Independence War of USA Significant Events
Paris Pact September 3, 1783
The Constitution of America
Causes of the Failure of the English
Nature of the Independence War of USA
American Revolution or American War of Independence